Oriental Fire-Bellied Toad
© 2008 Pierre Fidenci (1 of 37)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: China, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of, Korea, Republic of, Russian Federation
The species lives in various landscapes, as a rule, in mixed coniferous - broad-leaved forests. However, it often occurs in other habitats, including spruce, pine or leafed forests, open meadows, river valleys, swampy bushlands, etc. Bombina orientalis uses different types of bodies of water with stagnant (sometimes running) water: lakes, ponds, swamps, streams, springs, ditches, puddles etc. At the end of summer, the species can be found on land at distances up to few hundred meters from water.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The toad hibernates from late September - October to late April - May, on land: in rotten trees, heaps of stones, leaves, in groups of 1-6 individuals. Sometimes hibernation occurs in streams. Reproduction occurs in May - mid-August. The reproductive period is very long within each population because different females deposit eggs at a different time. The process of egg deposition is gradual: there are no peaks in spawning intensity. The male mating call resembles that of the Fire-Bellied Toad (Bombina bombina). Breeding pairs are formed randomly. Amplexus is pelvic. The clutch contains 38-257 eggs deposited in portions of 3-45 eggs. The interval between deposition of subsequent portions is 7-10 days. Probably, females are capable of depositing multiple clutches. Embryonic and larval development take about 2 months, and hatching takes place usually from early June to late July. Tadpoles complete metamorphosis usually by the end of August - late September. Maximum longevity is estimated as 20 years.
Larvae consume detritus, various algae, fungi, higher plants, protozoans and, in smaller amounts, Oligochaeta, Naiadomorpha, Rotatoria and Microcrustacea(Daphniidae, Sididae, Chydoridae, Ostracoda). The tadpole diet widens during ontogeny because of an increase in plant and animal diversity. Preying upon of terrestrial invertebrates (Acarina, Collembola) starts before the completion of metamorphosis while the toadlets still have a small tail rudiment. Adult food consists of terrestrial invertebrates including worms, molluscs and insects. The proportion of aquatic invertebrates (Gastropoda, Notonectidae, Dytiscidae, etc.) varies among populations.
Some predatory birds and mammals are known as natural enemies of this species. The defensive posture of adult individuals is similar to that of the European Fire-Bellied Toad (B. bombina).
Relation to Humans
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Written by Sergius L. Kuzmin (ipe51 AT yahoo.com), Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
First submitted 1999-09-30
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2007-12-07)
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