Oriental Fire-Bellied Toad
© 2009 Pierre Fidenci (1 of 37)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: China, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of, Korea, Republic of, Russian Federation
The species lives in various landscapes, as a rule, in mixed coniferous - broad-leaved forests. However, it often occurs in other habitats, including spruce, pine or leafed forests, open meadows, river valleys, swampy bushlands, etc. Bombina orientalis uses different types of bodies of water with stagnant (sometimes running) water: lakes, ponds, swamps, streams, springs, ditches, puddles etc. At the end of summer, the species can be found on land at distances up to few hundred meters from water.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The toad hibernates from late September - October to late April - May, on land: in rotten trees, heaps of stones, leaves, in groups of 1-6 individuals. Sometimes hibernation occurs in streams. Reproduction occurs in May - mid-August. The reproductive period is very long within each population because different females deposit eggs at a different time. The process of egg deposition is gradual: there are no peaks in spawning intensity. The male mating call resembles that of the Fire-Bellied Toad (Bombina bombina). Breeding pairs are formed randomly. Amplexus is pelvic. The clutch contains 38-257 eggs deposited in portions of 3-45 eggs. The interval between deposition of subsequent portions is 7-10 days. Probably, females are capable of depositing multiple clutches. Embryonic and larval development take about 2 months, and hatching takes place usually from early June to late July. Tadpoles complete metamorphosis usually by the end of August - late September. Maximum longevity is estimated as 20 years.
Larvae consume detritus, various algae, fungi, higher plants, protozoans and, in smaller amounts, Oligochaeta, Naiadomorpha, Rotatoria and Microcrustacea(Daphniidae, Sididae, Chydoridae, Ostracoda). The tadpole diet widens during ontogeny because of an increase in plant and animal diversity. Preying upon of terrestrial invertebrates (Acarina, Collembola) starts before the completion of metamorphosis while the toadlets still have a small tail rudiment. Adult food consists of terrestrial invertebrates including worms, molluscs and insects. The proportion of aquatic invertebrates (Gastropoda, Notonectidae, Dytiscidae, etc.) varies among populations.
Some predatory birds and mammals are known as natural enemies of this species. The defensive posture of adult individuals is similar to that of the European Fire-Bellied Toad (B. bombina).
Relation to Humans
Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
Stejneger, L. H. (1907). Herpetology of Japan and Adjacent Territory, United States National Museum Bulletin 58. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C..
Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
Written by Sergius L. Kuzmin (ipe51 AT yahoo.com), Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
First submitted 1999-09-30
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2007-12-07)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2007 Bombina orientalis: Oriental Fire-Bellied Toad <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/2045> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Oct 22, 2016.
Feedback or comments about this page.
Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2016. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 22 Oct 2016.
AmphibiaWeb's policy on data use.