Limnonectes kadarsani is a large fanged frog (genus Limnonectes) from the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. Snout-vent length reaches 120 mm in adult males. Skin texture is smooth, but wrinkled, with tubercles along the side of the body. The ventral surface and legs are smooth. The supratympanic fold is thick. A short dorsolateral fold runs along the anterior portion of the back. The head is as wide as it is long, or wider in adult males. The snout is rounded, with nostrils close to the tip of the snout. Two projections rise from the front of the lower jaw (odontoid processes, the “fangs” characteristic of the genus) in adult males. No vocal sac is present. The space between the eyes is smaller than the diameter of each eye. The vomerine teeth lie in two oblique rows just behind the choanae. The tympana are distinct. A “/ ” or “W” shaped marking lies over the scapulae. The limbs and digits of L. kadarsani are stout; the relative lengths of the fingers (from longest to shortest) is 3, 1, 4, 2. A fringe of skin runs along the second and third fingers, and the fingertips are enlarged. The toes are fully webbed, and also have enlarged tips. A thin tarsal fold and flap runs along the outer toes, and a skin flap sits behind the inner metatarsal tubercle. Young individuals have two rows of tubercles running along the back, but these are lost in adults (Iskandar et al. 1996).
Limnonectes kadarsani can be distinguished from other Limnonectes species by the presence of two dorsal tubercle rows in juveniles, moderately large adult size (larger than L. modestus but smaller than L. macrodon), large exoccipital crests in males, lack of vocal sacs in males, enlarged head of males, and lack of odontoid processes in females and juveniles (Iskandar et al. 1996).
Males are slightly larger than females, with wider heads. Growth of the exoccipital crest (a bony projection at the back of the skull) results in a greater distance between the eyes and tympana in adult males (up to 15 mm as opposed to the 4-6 mm seen in females). The exoccipital crest is externally visible as a raised knob at the back of the head in adult males (Iskandar et al. 1996).
In alcohol, the dorsum appears reddish-brown or grayish-brown, with a black supratympanic fold. The ventral surface is lighter and dusted with gray (Iskandar et al. 1996).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Indonesia
Limnonectes kadarsani is found on Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Adonara, and Lembata in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia, at elevations below 1,200 meters (Iskandar and Mumpuni 2004).
Limnonectes kadarsani can be found in canopy covered primary or secondary forests, in and around streams (Iskandar and Mumpuni 2004).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The eggs of L. kadarsani measure around 2.2 mm, and have a darkened animal pole (Iskandar et al. 1996). The species breeds in streams (Iskandar and Mumpuni 2004).
Trends and Threats
The species is relatively abundant and has a wide range, but faces threats from pollution due to agricultural runoff, consumption by humans, and deforestation. The species can be found in the protected area of Gunung Rinjani Natural Reserve on the island of Lombok (Iskandar and Mumpuni 2004).
Relation to Humans
Due to its large size, L. kadarsani is consumed by humans (Iskandar and Mumpuni 2004).
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Intensified agriculture or grazing
Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants
Long-distance pesticides, toxins, and pollutants
Intentional mortality (over-harvesting, pet trade or collecting)
The species is named for Dr. Sampuro Kadarsani, the former director of the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (Iskandar et al. 1996).
Limnonectes kadarsani is most closely related to L. macrodon, and is slightly more distantly related to L. modestus (Iskandar et al. 1996).
Limnonectes kadarsani was previously believed to be a part of L. macrodon. Specimens from Lombok island have previously been identified as L. modestus (Iskandar et al. 1996).
Iskandar, D. T., Boeadi, and Sancoyo, M. (1996). ''Limnonectes kadarsani (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae), a new frog from the Nusa Tenggara Islands.'' The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 44(1), 21-28.
Iskandar, D., and Mumpuni (2004). Limnonectes kadarsani. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 29 April 2013.
Written by John Cavagnaro (john.cavagnaro AT berkeley.edu), UC Berkeley
First submitted 2013-05-29
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