Limnonectes visayanus
family: Dicroglossidae
subfamily: Dicroglossinae

© 2010 Wouter Beukema (1 of 4)

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Philippines

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Vulnerable (VU)
See IUCN account.
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None


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From the Encyclopedia of Life account:


The fanged frogs of Asia are a moderately species-rich group of 55 described taxa distributed across much of SE Asia (Evans et al., 2003; Inger, 1999; AmphibiaWeb, 2011: Species of the genus Limnonectes have been recorded from as far west as India and China, through the Malaysian Peninsula and the Sunda Shelf Islands of Indonesia, the Philippines, and as far east as the Indonesian islands of the Malukus, the Lesser Sundas, and Papua New Guinea (Daudin, 1802; Duellman, 1993; Frost, 1985; Inger and Tan, 1996; Iskandar, 1998; Iskandar and Tjan, 1996; Inger, 1999; Smith, 1927; Zhao and Adler, 1993). Females of most species display reverse sexual dimorphism, with males being the larger sex.

Recently, many undescribed cryptic species have been identified (Evans et al., 2003), and widely distributed polytypic species complexes are commonly discussed in taxonomic and geographic summaries (Iskandar and Colijn, 2000; Iskandar and Tjan, 1996; Inger, 1999). The few available molecular phylogenetic studies of Limnonectes suggest that numerous cryptic species may exist (Emerson, 1996; Emerson et al., 2000; Evans et al., 2003; McLeod, 2010; Setiadi et al., 2011), especially in “widespread” species (complexes) like the L. kuhli (McLeod, 2010) and L. blythi groups; however, taxonomists have been reluctant to describe these taxa on the basis of molecular sequence data alone and revisionary studies have lagged far behind molecular work (Iskandar and Tjan, 1996; R. F. Inger, D. T. Iskandar, A. C. Alcala, personal communication). Nevertheless, some of the undescribed species are likely morphologically distinct and readily diagnosable on the basis of morphological characters.

Eleven species of Limnonectes are recognized to occur in the Philippines (Limnonectes acanthi, Limnonectes diuatus, Limnonectes ferneri, Limnonectes leytensis, Limnonectes macrocephalus, Limnonectes magnus, Limnonectes micrixalus, Limnonectes palavanensis, Limnonectes parvus, Limnonectes visayanus, and Limnonectes woodworthi). Several of these species are recognized to possess widespread distributions, some spanning recognized faunal demarcations (Limnonectes acanthi, Limnonectes leytensis, Limnonectes macrocephalus, Limnonectes magnus, Limnonectes visayanus, Limnonectes woodworthi). Several of these species have been shown to consist of deeply divergent, and likely unique, lineages (Evans et al., 2003).

Author: Siler, Cameron

Type Locality

"Siquijor Island", Philippines; type stored in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; FMNH 61636

Author: Siler, Cameron

Faunal Affinity

Visayan (Central) Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complex (PAIC; Brown and Diesmos, 2002)

Author: Siler, Cameron


This species is widely distributed throughout the Visayan (Central) Philippine islands, including the major islands of Negros, Panay, Cebu, and Masbate. It also occurs on many smaller islands in the central Philippines.

Author: Siler, Cameron


73.9-94.2 mm SVL

Author: Siler, Cameron

Diagnostic Description

Limnonectes visayanus can be distinguished from congeners in the Philippines, and non-Philippine (but phenotypically similar) species L. kuhlii and L. asperatus, by the following combination of characters: 1) body size moderate (SVL 73.9-94.2 mm); 2) dorsal skin rugose; 3) tympanum visible; 4) supratympanic fold prominent, smooth; 5) snout pointed; 6) Finger-I length greater than Finger-II length; 7) white-tipped dorsal sperities present, posterior one fourth of body; 8) white-tipped dorsal asperity clusters absent; 9) irregular dorsal folds/ridges present; and 10) continuous dorsolateral folds absent (Siler et al., 2009).

Author: Siler, Cameron

Conservation Status

We have evaluated this species against the IUCN criteria for classification, and find that it does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, or Near Threatened status. Limnonectes visayanus has been documented to be quite abundant at all sampled localities, including disturbed habitat. We therefore classify this species as Least Concern, LC (IUCN, 2010).

Author: Siler, Cameron