Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Southeast Asian Toad, Asian Common Toad, Spectacled Toad
family: Bufonidae

© 2010 Dr. Peter Janzen (1 of 65)

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Frogs of Borneo account.

AmphibiaChina 中国两栖类.

Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
Other International Status Sotheast Asian common toad
National Status Common
Regional Status Rare alpine species


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species occurs widely from northern Pakistan through Nepal, Bangladesh, India (including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Sri Lanka, southern China (including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau), Myanmar, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Viet Nam, Thailand and Cambodia to Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Anambas Islands and Natuna Islands, introduced to Bali, Sulawesi, Ambon and Manokwari, New Guinea (northeastern portion of the Vogelkop Peninsula, centred on Manokwari). It has been recorded from sea level up to 1,800m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

It is mainly a species of disturbed lowland habitats, from upper beaches and riverbanks to human-dominated agricultural and urban areas. It is uncommon in closed forests. It breeds in still and slow-flowing rivers and temporary and permanent ponds and pools. Adults are terrestrial and may be found under ground cover (eg. rocks, leaf-litter, logs), and are also associated with human habitations. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving waterbodies.


It is an abundant species throughout its range that is probably increasing in many areas.

Population Trend


Major Threats

There are no major threats to this very adaptable species. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat. It is eaten locally in northern Thailand.

Conservation Actions

None needed, other than further taxonomic study. The range of this species overlaps with many protected areas across its range. The species should be exterminated from New Guinea as a matter of urgency.

Taxonomic Notes

This form is probably a complex of more than one species. Duttaphrynus tienhoensis was synonymized with D. melanostictus by Dubois and Ohler (1999).


Peter Paul van Dijk, Djoko Iskandar, Michael Wai Neng Lau, Gu Huiqing, Geng Baorong, Lue Kuangyang, Chou Wenhao, Yuan Zhigang, Bosco Chan, Sushil Dutta, Robert Inger, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Muhammad Sharif Khan 2004. Duttaphrynus melanostictus. In: IUCN 2014


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