Snout pointed, projecting beyond mouth. Canthus obtuse, loreal oblique, more or less concave. Internarial space is longer than interorbital width, which is much less than width of the upper eyelid. Tympanum distinct, half to two third the diameter of eye. Fingers obtusely pointed, first longer than second, subarticular tubercles very prominent.Tibiotarsal articulation reaches tympanum or naris. Toes obtuse or with slightly swollen tips, half webbed, subarticular tubercles small and prominent. Body with small tubercles, sometimes small longitudinal folds are present, ventrum smooth except belly and thighs which are granular posteriorly. Male with loose gular region, with brown or blackish W-shaped mark, fore limbs stronger, with pad like subdigital tubercles under first finger. Snout-vent length 39-43 mm.
Color: Gray brown or olive above, sometimes suffused with bright carmine; a V-shaped dark mark between eyes, a yellow vertebral stripe mostly present; lips and limbs barred, a light line along calf, thighs laterally yellow, marbled with black, ventrum white, throat is mottled with brown in male.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Macau, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Viet Nam. Introduced: Guam.
Malaysian region distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak
Distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the sub-Himalayan parts of Pakistan, descending into the waters of Potwar Tableland to most of the Punjab plains and some of the lower Indus valley where it is scarcer. It ranges from Japan to Pakistan.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Natural history notes: Limnonectes limnocharis is most common and widely distributed species in the waters of neighboring Azad Kashmir, alpine Pakistan and extends into
Potwar Tableland, descending into most of the riparion Punjab. The frog frequents marginal vegetation along canals, streams, torrents, ponds and puddles, when disturbed it leaps in water to swim back at once.
Breeding is triggered by monsoon rains. Limnonectes limnocharis is one of the first amphibians to arrive at the calling sites. Calling males are widely spaced from each other and generally stationed close to the stream of flowing water. The call is characteristic "Ta, ta, ta, ta", repeated rapidly several times.
Egg are medium sized, enclosed in double jelly capsule, laid in batches, they adhere to the grass blades.
Karyotype number recorded for this species is 26 (Prakash, 1988).
Tadpole: Delicate, has long oval body, which is broadest and deepest at middle. Ventrum convex, anterior half of the body flexed forwards upwards. The eyes are dorsolateral in position, nearer to snout than vent. Tail is long, about twice the length of body, gradually tapering , acutely pointed, dorsal fin is broadest at middle, ventral fin runs parallel to the tail.
The anteroventral oral disc has anterior labium broader than posterior, the papillae are lateral, short and thick. A complete preoral denticle row is followed by medially widely interrupted second row. Of the three postoral rows, the outer most is the smallest. Labial tooth row formula is 2(2)/3. A tooth consists of three similar 0.4-0.5 mm long dental pieces, lying on each other, crown of each piece is with 5-6 sharp fine cirrations. The beak is delicate, broadly arched, is finely serrated.
Total length 26-27, tail 11-11.5 mm.
Trends and Threats
Pollution by pesticides and chemical used on crops,
Falls prey at tadpole and adult stage to water visiting birds, fishes and snakes.
Relation to Humans
Common in peddy fields and wetlands in the upper Indus Valley.
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants
Long-distance pesticides, toxins, and pollutants
Predators (natural or introduced)
Breeding is triggered by monsoon rains. Limnonectes limnocharis is one of the
first amphibians to arrive at the calling sites. Calling males are widely spaced
from each other and generally stationed close to the stream of flowing water.
The call is characteristic "Ta, ta, ta, ta", repeated rapidly several times.
For references in the text, see here
Prakash, S. (1988). Genetic studies on Rana limnocharis. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong.
Written by M.S.Khan (typhlops99 AT hotmail.com), Herp Lab, Rabwah, Pakistan
First submitted 2000-08-09
Edited by JG (2014-10-29)
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on
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