This species occurs in a narrow altitudinal zone (2,710-3,500m asl) on the Cordillera Oriental (Cordillera Real or Central), and the Mazán River in southern Ecuador. There are records from six localities.
Habitat and Ecology
It lives in páramo, very humid montane forest, and lower humid montane forest (Coloma 1995). Reproduction probably occurs by the females laying eggs on the ground, and the males bringing the tadpoles to streams for development.
The most recent record of this species is from December 1991. An extensive search in Mazán in 1995 (where the species was abundant in 1986) turned up no individuals. It appears to have undergone a serious decline.
The primary threat to this species is habitat loss and degradation due to agriculture, and logging. The possible disappearance of the species could be related to chytridiomycosis.
The range of this species overlaps Parque Nacional Cajas and its southern limit is adjacent to the northern limit of Parque Nacional Podocarpus. Surveys are urgently needed to establish the population status of this species.
Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Taran Grant, Manuel Morales 2004. Hyloxalus anthracinus. In: IUCN 2014