This species is known only from the type locality, Pailas, an indigenous village between Sevilla del Oro and Méndez on the eastern slopes of the Andes in Morona Santiago Province, southern Ecuador, at an altitude of 2,195m asl. It might occur more widely, but the survey effort has been insufficient to confirm this.
Habitat and Ecology
It occurs in cloud forest, where annual mean precipitation is 1000-2,000mm and annual mean temperature is 18-24°C. Its reproductive mode and its tolerance to habitat disturbance are unknown, but the larvae probably develop in streams. It occurs in parapatry with Colostethus anthracinus, the range of which is close to the type locality of C. peculiaris, but they have not been collected sympatrically.
There is no information on the population status of this species, which has apparently not been recorded since the four specimens of the type series were collected in 1962.
The major threat to this species is habitat destruction and degradation due to agricultural development and logging. By 1996, the forest at the type locality was observed to be fragmented.
It does not occur in any protected areas.
Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Taran Grant 2004. Hyloxalus peculiaris. In: IUCN 2014