This species has a confused disjunctive population distribution. In Peru it is suggested by Frost (1986) that it is known from the lower Amazonian slopes of the Andes of Perú from 600-1,000m asl. (Departamentos: Huánuco, San Martín). However Morales (1994) states that it is known only from the type locality (Roque, San Martin). Taxa assigned to C. peruvianus are also reported to occur widely along Madeira River and Rondonia state, Brazil. The type locality in Peru and Brazilian range are represented on the map until the range of this species can be better confirmed. It might occur in Bolivia (De la Riva et al. 2000).
Habitat and Ecology
In Peru it is a premontane species. In Brazil it inhabits lowland tropical moist forest. Generally a forest floor species, eggs are laid on the floor, and tadpoles are carried to small pools by the adults.
Abundance is not known. There is some doubt as to whether or not the Peruvian and Brazilian populations refer to the same species. Peruvian specimens are known only from museum collections.
In Peru the species is threatened by conversion of habitat to coffee plantations and other agricultural activities, and generalised logging including clear cutting. Recent surveys have indicated that it is now not present at the Peruvian type locality. There are no major threats to the species in Brazil.
It is not known to occur in any protected areas in Peru. Within Brazil, it has been recorded within many conservation areas (such as national forests). Further research into the taxonomy and range of this taxon is required.
This taxon might be comprised of several species, specimens from the type locality in the highlands being very different to specimens from the main part of the range.
Javier Icochea, Claudia Azevedo-Ramos 2004. Hyloxalus peruvianus. In: IUCN 2014