This species occurs from extreme southeastern California, southern Arizona and extreme southern New Mexico in the USA, south into Mexico. It has nearly been extirpated in California. It occurs from sea level to 1,610m asl (Stebbins 1985).
Habitat and Ecology
This species ranges from arid mesquite/creosotebush lowlands and arid grasslands to oak/sycamore/walnut groves in mountain canyons. It is often near permanent water but is also found near temporary water or far from water. It takes refuge in rodent burrows. It breeds and lays eggs in ponds, slow-moving streams, etc.
The total adult population size for this species is unknown but surely is many thousands. It is common throughout its range.
No major threats have been identified (other than localized ones) for this species.
This species is found in El Pinacade Biosphere Reserve in Mexico.
Geoffrey Hammerson, Georgina Santos-Barrera 2004. Incilius alvarius. In: IUCN 2014