This species ranges from north-central Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama, on both Atlantic and Pacific slopes, extending to Pacific lowlands of Colombia and northern Ecuador. It occurs up to 1500m asl (Costa Rica).
Habitat and Ecology
A nocturnal species associated with humid lowland and submontane tropical forest, including secondary forest, forest edges, open areas close to the forest, and occasionally in open areas near towns. It is both terrestrial and arboreal, and breeds in streams, rivers and shallow pools.
It is scarce in Colombia and rare in Ecuador. It is a fairly common species in Panama and Costa Rica.
The major threats are deforestation for agricultural development, illegal crops, logging, mining, exotic species introduction and human settlement, and pollution resulting from the spraying of illegal crops.
In Ecuador, its distribution range overlaps with the Reserva Ecológica Cotacachi-Cayapas, and it occurs in several protected areas in Colombia as well in protected areas throughout much of its range in Central America.
Solís, F., Ibáñez, R., Jaramillo, C., Chaves, G., Savage, J., Köhler, G., Coloma, L.A., Ron, S.R., Renjifo, J., Almendáriz, A., Bolaños, F. & Sunyer, J. 2010. Incilius coniferus. In: IUCN 2014