This species occurs in the lowlands and middle elevations of the Atlantic slopes and Cordillera Central of Costa Rica, at elevations of 2-1,080m asl. It has recently been recorded from extreme southaeastern Nicaragua (Köhler et al., 2004).
Habitat and Ecology
It lives in lowland moist and wet forests and the lower portion of premontane wet forest. It is most likely not very tolerant of either canopy removal of forest or alteration and/or siltation of breeding streams. Other species in this clade are highly intolerant of such impacts. It breeds in large streams and is sometimes encountered on the forest floor.
It is widespread and regularly encountered during breeding periods. It disappeared from Monteverde in the late 1980s and then reappeared in the 1990s (Pounds et al. 1997).
Alteration of streams, including pollution is a threat to this species. Chytridiomycosis might be a future threat.
It occurs in several National Parks and other protected areas, including La Selva, Monteverde and Reserva Indo-Maíz. Population monitoring is recommended in case of outbreaks of chytridiomycosis and/or other diseases. Further studies are needed into the identity of populations allocated to this species from the Pacific coast (Federico Bolaños and Gerardo Chaves pers. comm.).
Pacific slope populations have recently been described as a separate species, I. aucoinae (O'Neill and Mendelson, 2004). However, records of Incilius melanochlorus from the Pacific slope remain, and these need further investigation to confirm their identity (Federico Bolaños and Gerardo Chaves pers. comm.).
Bolaños, F., Chaves, G. & Sunyer, J. 2010. Incilius melanochlorus. In: IUCN 2014