Leptophryne cruentata
Bleeding Toad, Kodok Merah
family: Bufonidae

© 2009 Georg Moser (1 of 2)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Critically Endangered (CR)
Other International Status Critically Endangered
National Status None
Regional Status None


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species occurs only on Mount Pangrango, Mount Gedeh and Curug Luhur, Jawa Barat, Java, Indonesia, at altitudes between 1,000m and 2,000m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

It lives in the boundary zone between moist lowland and montane forest. It breeds in very slow-moving, intermittent streams in forest where the larvae also develop.


In 1976, this species was abundant within its small range. In 1987, it was very rare following the eruption of Mount Galunggung. There were no records from the early 1990s until 2003, when one individual was sighted from the Cibeureum Waterfall. It appears to have undergone a major decline.

Population Trend


Major Threats

It appears to have declined drastically due to a volcanic eruption. However, its decline is also reminiscent of similar disappearances of montane stream-breeding amphibians in other parts of the moist tropics, and so chytridiomycosis cannot be ruled out (although this disease has not so far been recorded in this region).

Conservation Actions

This species occurs in the Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park. Surveys are needed to locate this species and a captive-breeding programme might need to be established.


Djoko Iskandar, Mumpuni 2004. Leptophryne cruentata. In: IUCN 2014


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