AMPHIBIAWEB
Limnonectes cintalubang
family: Dicroglossidae
subfamily: Dicroglossinae
 
Species Description: Matsui M, Nishikawa K, Eto K 2014 A new burrow-utilising fanged frog from Sarawak, East Malaysia. (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 62: 679-687.
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status
CITES No CITES Listing
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

 

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Description
Limnonectes cintalubang is a small frog with males reaching a snout-vent length of 45mm and females ranging in size from 32 - 43mm. Like other fanged frogs, it has a pair of tooth-like projections at the front of the lower jaw. The snout is rounded and the upper jaw extends well beyond the lower jaw. The nostrils are situated dorsally on the snout and the distance between them is narrower than the distance between the eyes. The tympanum is very distinct, nearly circular, and more than one half the diameter of the eye. The skin on the back is fairly smooth, with barely discernible wrinkles that run across it. The underside is also smooth. The arms are fairly stout and short. The inner tubercle of the palm is elongate and not raised, whereas the outer tubercle is just a bit smaller. The middle tubercle of the palm is round and faint. There is a skin ridge on the edges of the fingers. The fingers are slim, lack webbing, and the fingertips are swollen. There is a nuptial pad extending from the base of the first finger to the subarticular tubercle. The relative finger lengths are as follows, from shortest to longest: II = I < IV < III. The legs, like the arms, are fairly stout and short. The toe tips are noticeably enlarged. The subarticular tubercles of the toe are elliptical and noticeable, and the inner metatarsal tubercles are elongate. The relative toe lengths are as follows, from shortest to longest: I < II < V < III < IV (Matsui et al. 2014).

Compared to other Limnonectes, this species is fairly small (snout-vent length is 45mm in males and 32-43mm in females). The following combination of characteristics distinguishes L. cintalubang from other Limnonectes. Adult males have a pointed tusk and no cephalic hump. The tympanum is noticeable and the legs are fairly short. There are small pads on the digits. There is very little toe webbing. The back is quite smooth, with hints of wrinkles running horizontally across it. The back is also brown, and shows small blue spots that go down to the sides and limbs (Matsui et al. 2014).

In life, it has a chocolate brown back with small light blue spots that reach the flanks and limbs. The head has a dim orange bar behind the eyes that spans the distance between both eyes. The lower lip is brown and spotted white. The backsides of the limbs are reddish brown, whereas the sides of the limbs are speckled brown. The throat shows uneven light brown blotching. The chest and stomach are cream colored. The undersides of the hands and feet are light brown. In preservative, the back is darker in color, and the light blue spots turn white (Matsui et al. 2014).

There is little color variation between individual frogs. Body proportions were variable most likely due to ontogenetic changes. Too few specimens were found to accurately describe differences between sexes. Some smaller individuals had faint dark brown bars on the tibia and tarsus (Matsui et al. 2014).

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Malaysia

 

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It is known only from Ranchan, Serian, Samarahan Division, state of Sarawak, East Malaysia. This species was found on loose inclines with bamboo and broad-leaved trees (Matsui et al. 2014).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
This species has only been observed on the ground near burrows, where it would escape to when disturbed. Burrows were 5 - 10cm in diameter and 50 - 60cm in length. The ground cover surrounding the burrows was flat and lightly covered in dead leaves, plant roots, and stones. Frogs were active after 1930 hours. No frogs have been heard calling during repeated visits to the type locality in March, July, and December. Females found in July possessed large eggs, suggesting that the breeding season includes part of the summer. The eggs ranged in size from 1.63 to 1.88mm and were milky white, which suggests that eggs are laid in shaded areas (Matsui et al. 2014).

Trends and Threats
There is no information on trends and threats at this time.

Comments
The species authority is: Matsui, M., Nishikawa, K., Eto, K. (2014). "A new burrow-utilising fanged frog from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Anura: Dicroglossidae)." Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 62, 679-687.

This species is part of the Limnonectes kuhlii complex which is a clade of Bornean fanged frogs (Matsui et al. 2014).

The species name was given to allude to its burrow-utilizing lifestyle and comes from the Malay words “cintai”, meaning to love, and “lubang”, meaning a hole (Matsui et al. 2014).

This species is thought to use burrows constructed by other animals rather than constructing the burrow itself due to the lack of several morphological features associated with digging such as spade-like tubercles on the hand feet, a spade-like snout, and large forelimbs (Matsui et al. 2014).

The skin is extremely fragile and will readily rip when captured. It is possible that this is a defense mechanism to loose itself from the grasp of predators (Matsui et al. 2014).

References

Matsui, M., Nishikawa, K., Eto, K. (2014). ''A new burrow-utilising fanged frog from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Anura: Dicroglossidae).'' Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 62, 679-687.



Written by Seth M. LaGrange (smlagrange AT gmail.com), Southern Illinois University
First submitted 2015-07-08
Edited by Gordon Lau (2015-08-03)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2015 Limnonectes cintalubang <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/8260> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Oct 23, 2017.



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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 23 Oct 2017.

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