Peltophryne lemur
Puerto Rican Crested Toad, sapo concho
family: Bufonidae

© 2006 Paddy Ryan (1 of 7)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Critically Endangered (CR)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species has a very restricted range, and is known from only a handful of localities along the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. In recent years it has been recorded from only one location on the south coast of Puerto Rico. The species is considered to be extinct at Virgin Gorda Island (Perry and Gerber 2006). It apparently occurred in St. John (U.S. Virgin Islands), but it is currently believed to be extirpated there (Platenberg and Boulon 2006). It has been recorded from sea level up to 50 m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

It is a terrestrial species found in semi-arid, rocky areas of seasonal evergreen forest. Eggs are laid in permanent or temporary pools of water, streams, or small dams for livestock.


The north coast population has not been recorded since 1992, and it is most likely extirpated in this area. It was last recorded on Virgin Gorda Island in 1964, and other surveys since then have not located any individuals. Since 1992, there has only been one known population remaining. In 1984, there were 900 mature individuals recorded in this population; subsequently, in 1998, there were only 215 mature individuals recorded (of which 34 were females), in 2002 only 100 mature individuals, and in 2003 only 80 mature individuals were recorded (R. Joglar pers. comm.). It was last recorded in 2007 (Hedges and Díaz 2009).

Population Trend


Major Threats

Infrastructure development for human settlement is a major threat, particularly on the north coast. In the south of its range a temporary breeding pool was deliberately drained to clear parking space for visitors to the beach.

Conservation Actions

The last known population occurs entirely within the Guanica National Forest. Captive breeding has been successful, and after many years a re-introduction program in Puerto Rico seems to be showing some success, with re-introduced captive-bred animals now returning to the constructed ponds where they were first released (Zippel 2005).


Ariadne Angulo 2010. Peltophryne lemur. In: IUCN 2014


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