© 2011 Michel Aguiar Passos (1 of 8)
Diagnosis: Like P. vielliardi, P. moratoi lacks paired tubercular sagittal crests, but can be distinguished from P. vielliardi by a smaller body size (males are 24.7-31.0 mm in SVL in P. moratoi; males are 39.1–41.9 mm in SVL in P. vielliardi). It is also distinguished by having an X-shaped mark on the dorsum (lacking in P. vielliardi) and by having the zygomatic ramus of the squamosal, elongated but not contacting the maxilla. The zygomatic ramus of the squamosal is in contact with the maxilla for P. vielliardi. Its advertisement call is a single note for P. moratoi. P. vielliardi has a multi-note advertisement call (Martins and Giaretta 2011).
Coloration: An X-shaped marking is present on the dorsum (Martins and Giaretta 2011).
Tadpole Morphology: The tadpole has an elliptical body in dorsal view, and a globular, depressed body in lateral view. The snout is rounded, with small, rounded dorsally located nostrils. It has large eyes that are located dorsally and are directed laterally. The spiracle is sinistral, short and located on the medial third of the body. The vent tube is dextral and is attached to the entire length of the ventral. The oral disc is ventral; it is laterally emarginate and is bordered by a single row of large, conical marginal papillae except for the upper ridge. The labial teeth are black and slightly curved toward the mouth. Medial gaps are present in the innermost upper row and the innermost lower row of denticles. Jaw sheaths are black and have triangular, pointed serrations; the upper sheath is slightly convex and the lower sheath is U-shaped. The tail has a rounded tip, heavy caudal musculature and a dorsal fin deeper than the rectilineal ventral fin (Rossa-Feres and Jim 1996).
Tadpole Coloration: In life, the tadpole body is reddish brown with scattered silver-gray dots dorsally and laterally. A rectangular dark spot is present on the dorsal fin origin. The venter is transparent. The tail is light brown with a few dark spots on the dorsal surface. The caudal musculature has small dark dots that coalesce into a thin dark stripe on the proximal third of the tail. Tailfins are transparent with a few small dark spots. In preservative, the body is yellowish-brown, and transparent laterally and ventrally; the proximal third of the tail is cream-colored and the rest is transparent; fins are transparent and sparsely spotted with dark spots (Rossa-Feres and Jim 1996).
Distribution and Habitat
P. moratoi is terrestrial and its habitat ranges from open areas of sandy soil, within a mosaic of cultivated sugarcane cropland and remnant secondary forest, and flooded areas near streams (Carvalho et al. 2010; Caramaschi and Jim 1980; Rolim et al. 2010). Its habitat in Itirapina is gallery forest (Brasileiro 2004).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
This species breeds in small, shallow, slow-moving streams. Tadpoles are found in shady areas of the streamlets (Rossa-Feres and Jim 1996).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Amaro, R. C., Pavan, D., and Rodrigues, M. T. (2009). ''On the generic identity of Odontophrynus moratoi Jim & Caramaschi, 1980 (Anura, Cycloramphidae) .'' Zootaxa, 2071, 61-68.
Brasileiro, C. A., Martins, I. A., and Jim, J. (2008). ''Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Odontophrynus moratoi: Distribution extension and advertisement call.'' Check List, 4, 382-385.
Caramaschi, U. and Jim, J. (1980). ''Uma nova espécie de Odontophrynus da região de Botucatu, São Paulo.'' Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 40, 357-360.
Carvalho, R. R. Jr., Kleinsorgeand, J. M. D., and Fusinatto, L. A. (2010). ''Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Odontophrynus moratoi Jim and Caramaschi, 1980: Filling gaps. Discovery of a new population in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil .'' Check List, 6, 36-37.
Maffei, F., et al. (2011). ''Discovery of the fifth population of a threatened and endemic toad of the Brazilian Cerrado, Proceratophrys moratoi (Anura, Cycloramphidae).'' Herpetological Notes, 4, 95-96.
Martins, L. B., and Giaretta, A. A. (2011). ''A new species of Proceratophrys Miranda-Ribeiro (Amphibia: Anura: Cycloramphidae) from central Brazil.'' Zootaxa, 2880, 41-50.
Rolim, D. C. , Martinez, R. A. M. , Almeida, S. C., Ubaid, F. K., Maffei, F., and Jim, J. (2010). ''Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Proceratophrys moratoi (Jim and Caramaschi, 1980): Distribution extension and new altitudinal record in state of São Paulo, Brazil.'' Check List, 6, 576-578.
Rossa-Feres, D.C. and Jim, J. (1996). ''Tadpole of Odontophrynus moratoi (Anura, Leptodactylidae).'' Journal of Herpetology, 30, 536-539.
Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Written by Meghan Bishop and Kellie Whittaker (Meghanrbishop AT gmail.com), San Francisco State University
First submitted 2010-06-24
Edited by Kellie Whittaker, Mingna (Vicky) Zhuang (2012-04-15)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2012 Proceratophrys moratoi <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/5611> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Oct 23, 2017.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 23 Oct 2017.
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