Sclerophrys pantherina
Western Leopard Toad
family: Bufonidae

© 2005 Wolfgang Ochojski (1 of 8)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Endangered (EN)
Other International Status Endangered
National Status Endangered
Regional Status None


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known only from a very small area (Extent of Occurrence 1,750 km

Habitat and Ecology

It breeds in large wetlands, vleis, dams, and sluggish water in lowland fynbos heathland, as well as in altered habitats with permanent waterbodies, and occasionally temporary waterbodies that retain water well into summer, and has a preference for deep water, with floating plants. Females have been reported to lay nearly 25,000 eggs. It forages in fynbos heathland, farmland, suburban gardens, and urban open areas, although always in close proximity to freshwater habitats. There is an ongoing decline in the quantity and quality of suitable habitat for both foraging and breeding.


It is locally common and easily seen during breeding in August. Within the last 20 years it has undergone drastic declines from urban areas where it was once abundant, although no quantitative data are available. Collection of quantitative data is ongoing with which it is hoped to provide population data in the future. The spatial distribution of this species is considered to be severely fragmented as more than half of the occupied habitat area is in small and isolated patches and >50% of subpopulations are considered non-viable.

Population Trend


Major Threats

Although it is tolerant of habitat alteration, it is being negatively impacted by increased urbanization and agricultural expansion in its entire range. Road kills, urban design, alien vegetation and introduced fish are all thought to be important factors. A recent introduction and rapid expansion of Amietophrynus gutturalis into the City of Cape Town poses threats of competition and possible hybridisation.

Conservation Actions

Research is needed to determine population trends and the importance of perceived threats. A Biodiversity Management Plan (under NEMBA) is required to underpin Memoranda of Understanding between multiple stakeholders. Monitoring is required at known breeding sites to determine their efficacy, especially in the eastern range. There is great potential to significantly improve the status of this species through conservation planning and control of threats posed by alien species (including fish, Guttural toads and plants). It occurs on the western fringe of Agulhas National Park, Table Mountain National Park as well as in various City of Cape Town reserves. However, much of its remaining habitat  is made up of urban gardens, is unprotected, and requires significant public education to make any conservation measure a success.

Taxonomic Notes

Reports of this species occurring between Agulhas and Wilderness, the westernmost record of Amietophrynus pardalis (Minter et al. 2004) remain unconfirmed.


South African Frog Re-assessment Group (SA-FRoG), IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2010. Amietophrynus pantherinus. In: IUCN 2014


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