This species can be found from the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica and adjacent Nicaragua, at 15-520m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
It lives in lowland tropical rainforest, and has also been found breeding in very disturbed habitats, including pastures (Gerardo Chaves and Brian Kubicki pers. comm.). Males call throughout the rainy season, from shallow water and low bushes, usually hidden in vegetation. Breeding takes place in small, shallow temporary pools or ponds (Savage 2002).
It has been considered uncommon, but regularly recorded in Costa Rica. However, a study in 2006 found this species to be abundant in northern Costa Rica (Mahmoot Sasa unpublished data).
The major threat is habitat loss and degradation due to small- and large-scale agriculture and logging. The forests of south-eastern Nicaragua have been less altered than those on the Costa Rican side of the border.
The range of this species includes several national parks and other protected areas.
Federico Bolaños, Gerardo Chaves, Brian Kubicki, Javier Sunyer 2010. Smilisca puma. In: IUCN 2014