Trachycephalus typhonius
Pepper Treefrog
family: Hylidae
subfamily: Hylinae

© 2005 Santiago Ron (1 of 50)

  hear call (1321.0K MP3 file)

  hear Fonozoo call (#1)
  hear Fonozoo call (#2)

[call details here]

Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is found in Central America, from central Tamaulipas and southern Sinaloa, Mexico southward on both coasts to central Nicaragua and on to the Pacific lowlands through Panama, from 0-1,610m asl. In South America it occurs throughout the Amazon basin, south to Paraná (Brazil), Paraguay, northern Argentina. It is also present on both Trinidad and Tobago. It has an altitudinal range in South America of sea level to 800m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

This is an arboreal, canopy-dwelling forest and forest-edge species. It occurs in a number of habitat types from savannahs and other open habitats to both dry and moist forests. It can be found in disturbed habitats, animals may even be found within human dwellings. It can live within second growth forest and plantations. This species breeds at the beginning of the rainy season, with males calling at night while floating in large temporary pools or intermittent streams. The floating egg clutches are laid in the water where the tadpoles also develop.


It is a very common species.

Population Trend


Major Threats

There are no major threats, this is a widespread species with large areas of suitable habitat remaining. There is some localized habitat loss due to drying of wetlands, forest destruction, urbanization, pollution and fire. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat.

Conservation Actions

The wide distribution range of this species overlaps with several protected areas.

Taxonomic Notes

This species was previously within the genus Phrynohyas which was recently synonymized with Trachycephalus (Faivovich, et al., 2005).


Enrique La Marca, Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Norman Scott, Lucy Aquino, Débora Silvano, Luis A. Coloma, Santiago Ron, Julian Faivovich, Georgina Santos-Barrera, Frank Solís, Roberto Ibáñez, Federico Bolaños, Larry David Wilson, Jerry Hardy, Paulino Ponce 2010. Trachycephalus venulosus. In: IUCN 2014


IUCN Terms of Use