Bufo luchunnicus (Yang & Rao, 2008)
Luchun Stream Toad
|Species Description: Yang D 2008 in Yang D Rao D (eds.) Amphibia and Reptilia of Yunnan: 57, under the original name Torrentophryne luchunnica.|
DESCRIPTION: (A description of species morphology as if you had the amphibian in your hand, typically starting with the snout-vent length, then focusing from the head to the body and extremities)
Bufo luchunnicus is a medium-sized toad with a snout-vent length of 55.4 - 59.2 mm. The head is wider than it is long, having a width of 17.9 - 20.5 mm and a length of 17.1 - 18.7 mm. The snout is short, protruding obtusely in the profile view. The loreal region is flat and sloping, and the canthus rostralis is distinct. The pupil is horizontally oval-shaped. The eye diameter (6.1 - 6.5 mm) is slightly shorter than the snout (6.5 - 7.1 mm). The upper eyelids are 4.4 - 4.5 mm wide. The interorbital distance (6.0 - 6.4 mm) is greater than the internarial distance (4.3 - 4.4 mm). The parotid gland is elongated and distinct while the tympanum is indistinct. The forelimbs are robust. The upper arm length is 16.8 - 18.1 mm, which is shorter than the forearm length (30.7 - 33.5 mm). The relative finger lengths are II < I = IV < III and there is no webbing. The fingertips are round and do not have discs or dermal fringes. There are subarticular tubercles (formula 1, 1, 2, 2) and prominent, round palmar tubercles are present. The inner metatarsal tubercle is oval and an outer metatarsal tubercle is absent. A nuptial pad on finger I, composed of small spines, is present. The hind limbs are short, with the thigh (27.5 - 28.7 mm) being longer than the tibia (27.1 - 27.2 mm). The toe tips are round and lack discs, like the fingers. The relative toe lengths are I < II < III < V < IV and webbing is present (formula I 1/4 – 3/4 II 1/4 – 1 III 1/2 – 1 1/2 IV 1 1/2 – 0V). Subarticular tubercles are present and the inner metatarsal tubercle is long. The outer metatarsal tubercle is small. The dorsal surface of the body and flanks is covered with blunt warts, with tubercles also covering the dorsal surfaces of the forelimbs and bigger warts on the dorsal surfaces of the hind limbs (Pham et al. 2019).
DIAGNOSIS: (How this species is differentiated from similar species)
Bufo luchunnicus bears morphological similarity to B. cryptotympanicus, but B. luchunnicus is smaller (male snout-vent length of 55 - 61 mm compared to 65 - 77 mm in B. cryptotympanicus). The relative finger lengths and webbing are also different, with relative finger lengths being II < I = IV < III in B. luchunnicus and I = II < IV < III in B. cryptotympanicus, and webbing being I 1/4 – 3/4 II 1/4 – 1 III 1/2 – 1 1/2 IV 1 1/2 – 0V in B. luchunnicus and I 1/2 – 1 II 1/2 – 1 III 1 – 2 IV 2 – 1 V in B. cryptotympanicus (Pham et al. 2019).
COLORATION: (In life and/or in preservative)
In life, the dorsum is brown with darker spots, including on the dorsal surfaces of the fore- and hind limbs. The parotoid gland is black on the sides. The flanks are grey-black, having white markings. The ventrum is brown with yellow markings. The nuptial pad is brown (Pham et al. 2019).
VARIATION: (if known)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: China, Viet Nam
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Trends and Threats
Relation to Humans
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
ETYMOLOGY (Origin or explanation of scientific name):
The species epithet, "luchunnicus", comes from its type locality of Lüchun County, Yunnan Province, China.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2020). "Bufo luchunnicus." The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T49328174A49328178. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T49328174A49328178.en. Accessed on 21 February 2023.
Pham, C.T., Le, M.D., Hoang, C.V., Pham, A.V., Ziegler, T., Nguyen, T.Q. (2019). "First records of Bufo luchunnicus (Yang et Rao, 2008) and Amolops wenshanensis Yuan, Jin, Stuart et Wu, 2018 (Anura: Bufonidae, Ranidae) from Vietnam." Russian Journal of Herpetology, 27(2), 81-86. [link]
Originally submitted by: Madeline Ahn (2023-03-01)
Description by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)
Distribution by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)
Life history by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)
Trends and threats by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)
Relation to humans by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)
Comments by: Madeline Ahn (updated 2023-03-01)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2023-03-01)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2023 Bufo luchunnicus: Luchun Stream Toad <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/7297> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 20, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 20 Mar 2023.
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