Ischnocnema nanahallux Brusquetti, Thome, Canedo, Condez & Haddad, 2013
|Species Description: Brusquetti F, Thome MTC, Canedo C, Condez TH, Haddad CFB. 2013 A new species of Ischnocnema parva species series (Anura, Brachycephalidae) from norther state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Herpetologica 69: 175-185.|
Ischnocnema nanahallux can be differentiated from members of the I. guentheri, I. lactea, and I. verrucosa species complexes by their slightly pointed finger discs. For a more complete diagnosis, see Brusquetti et al. 2013.
In life, the background color tends to be brown with an X or V-shaped black mark on the dorsum. There are two pairs of black dots anterior and posterior to the dorsal mark. Throughout their dorsal surface, they have a distribution of small reddish dots. There is a dark horizontal stripe on their head between the eyes area. Two transversal stripes can be found on their forelimbs and four can be found covering the thigh and foot. On the ventral surface they tend to have yellowish dots in the ventral area. Their glandular nuptial pads on posterior and dorsal surfaces of thumb are white (Brusquetti et al. 2013). For a more complete coloration, see Brusquetti et al. 2013.
The species has sexual dimorphism with females tending to be larger and with fewer ventral dots than males. Individual variation comes in the form of some specimens tending to have white stripes on their body and some have V-shaped instead of X-shaped dorsal marks (Brusquetti et al. 2013)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil
Ischnocnema nanahallux was previously grouped in the I. parva species complex. However, when the species was described, the authors noted the need for revision of the I. parva species complex as the genetic distances between I. nanahallux and members of the I. parva group is greater than genetic distances within the group (Brusquetti et al. 2013).
Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood, and Maximum Parsimony analyses of 12S and 16S mtDNA, and Tyrosinase and Rag1 nDNA found that I. nanahallux does not belong to any species group and is sister to the clades composed of the I. parva, I. venancioi, and I. guntheri species groups. The next most closely related species group is the I. verrucosa species group (Taucce et al. 2018).
The species epithet is derived from the Latin words, “nanus”, meaning “dwarf,” and “hallux” meaning “big toe.” Together they describe the reduced toe in the species (Brusquetti et. al. 2013)
Brusquetti, F., Thomé, M.T.C., Canedo, C., Condez, T.H., Haddad, C.F.B. (2013) “A new species of Ischnocnema parva species series (Anura, Brachycephalidae) from northern State of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.” Herpetologica 69(2), 175–85 [link]
Taucce, P.P.G., Canedo, C. Parreiras, J.S., Drummond, L.O., Nogueira-Costa, P., Haddad, C.F.B. (2018) “Molecular phylogeny of Ischnocnema (Anura: Brachycephalidae) with the redefinition of its series and the description of two new species.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 128, 123-146 [link]
Originally submitted by: Ramon Dircio, Jericha Margriter, Raaghav Saxena (2022-08-16)
Description by: Ramon Dircio, Jericha Margriter, Raaghav Saxena (updated 2022-08-16)
Distribution by: Ramon Dircio, Jericha Margriter, Raaghav Saxena (updated 2022-08-16)
Comments by: Ramon Dircio, Jericha Margriter, Raaghav Saxena (updated 2022-08-16)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2022-08-16)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Ischnocnema nanahallux <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/8013> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Mar 27, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 27 Mar 2023.
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