AmphibiaWeb - Plethodon neomexicanus


(Translations may not be accurate.)

Plethodon neomexicanus Stebbins & Riemer, 1950
Jemez Mountains Salamander
Subgenus: Hightonia
family: Plethodontidae
subfamily: Plethodontinae
genus: Plethodon

© 2009 Andreas & Christel Nöllert (1 of 4)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account Near Threatened (NT)
NatureServe Use NatureServe Explorer to see status.
National Status Endangered
Regional Status None
Access Conservation Needs Assessment Report .



View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
View Bd and Bsal data (2 records).

Plethodon neomexicanus are slim, elongated and short-legged salamanders. Females average 55.5 mm and males average 54.4 mm in length. They usually have 18-19 costal grooves and 19-20 trunk vertebrae (Williams 1973).

Adults are brown with fine brassy-colored stippling dorsally (Stebbins 2003). Ventrally, the pigment is reduced to the extent that they almost appear transparent (Williams 1973).

Young Plethodon neomexicanus have faint gray or brassy dorsal stripes. Molecular data indicate that these salamanders are mostly closely related to Plethodon larselli , the Larch Mountain salamanders (Stebbins 2003).

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: United States

U.S. state distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: New Mexico


View distribution map in BerkeleyMapper.
View Bd and Bsal data (2 records).
This species occurs in the Jemez Mountains of Los Alamos and Sandoval counties, New Mexico (Williams 1973). It is found in moss-covered rockslides, epecially on north-facing slopes and under bark and beneath logs in and near mixed forest of fir, spruce, aspen, and maple. It spends most of the time underground except during the summer rains, between June and August (Stebbins 2003).

Trends and Threats
As of 10 October 2013, Plethodon neomexicanus has had a federal listing of "Endangered" by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (the full report is available here).

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Intensified agriculture or grazing
Habitat fragmentation
Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants


Stebbins, R. C. (1954). Amphibians and Reptiles of Western North America. McGraw-Hill, New York.

USDI Fish & Wildlife Service (2013). Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for Jemez Mountains Salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus) Throughout Its Range; Final Rule. Federal Register: National Archives and Records Administration, Available here.

Willams, S. R. (1973). Comparative ecology and reproduction of the endemic New Mexico plethodontid salamanders, Plethodon neomexicanus and Aneides hardii, Ph.D. dissertation. University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA.

Originally submitted by: Peera Chantasirivisal (first posted 2005-10-04)
Edited by: Tate Tunstall, Michelle Koo (2018-01-19)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2018 Plethodon neomexicanus: Jemez Mountains Salamander <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Apr 19, 2024.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2024. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 19 Apr 2024.

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