Bufotes surdus
Iranian Toad
family: Bufonidae

© 2013 Barbod Safaei (1 of 5)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
Other International Status Reginally restricted
National Status rare
Regional Status rare


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is distributed in the highlands of southwestern Pakistan (western Baluchistan and around Quetta) and much of southern Iran (further verification of identity is needed for the possible isolated population of the Zagros mountains). It has been recorded from eastern Iraq (S. Anderson pers. comm., September 2008). Altitudinal range in Iran is sea level to approximately 2,250 m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

A little known species mostly confined to oasis, pools irrigated areas and their surroundings. Breeding occurs during monsoons, with males gathering in temporal pools. Eggs are laid in double strings, which are wound around the pond vegetation; resulting larvae feed on pond vegetation. During the dry season toads seek damp areas under stones and within vegetation; such sites may hold several toads. Present in agricultural areas and also in the vicinity of human settlements.


It is a relatively common species at some temporary waterbodies in Iran; less frequent in Pakistan. It is locally common at the Taftan Mountain in Iran (T. Papenfuss pers. comm., September 2008). This species might be overlooked due to confusion with juveniles of Bufotes variabilis.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The species is generally threatened by intensification of agriculture, including the pollution of breeding sites. Some localized population declines might be occurring with extended periods of drought and habitat loss.

Conservation Actions

There are no specific conservation measures for this species. Part of the range, along the Sarboz River of Iran, is within a well-protected crocodile sanctuary. The population found at the Taftan Mountain of Iran is also within a protected area.

Taxonomic Notes

This form is a problematic complex of more than one species.


Muhammad Sharif Khan, Matthias Stöck, Theodore Papenfuss, Steven Anderson, Sergius Kuzmin, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Mozafar Sharifi, Soheila Shafiei Bafti, Sushil Dutta & Annemarie Ohler 2015. Bufotes surdus. In: IUCN 2014


IUCN Terms of Use