Adult C. volcani are medium-sized (TL to 320mm) caecilians with 112-124 primary annular folds and 14-37 secondary annular folds. The eyes are visible under the skin, splenial teeth are present, the tongue has dark narial plugs, and the total length divided by the mid-body width is 30-37. Coloration in life is a uniform slate gray, vaguely lighter on the head, neck, and lighter still on the lips and underside of the snout. In preservative the dorsum of the animal is dark charcoal grey with a lighter shade on the sides and belly. Annular folds are darker than the lateral coloration. The snout is light tan as are the margin of the lower jaws, and a small circle at the vent.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Panama
This caecilian is endemic to Panamá and fewer than 20 specimens have been deposited from three provinces (Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, and Cochlé). The altitudinal range for this species is from 500m – 1100m. All specimens have been collected within 20km of the continental divide and the disjunct range may represent poor sampling of the intervening area.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Intensified agriculture or grazing
Disturbance or death from vehicular traffic
Drainage of habitat
Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants
Long-distance pesticides, toxins, and pollutants
Ahl, E. (1924). ''Über einige afrikanische Frösche.'' Zoologischer Anzeiger, 59/60, 269-273.
Savage, J.M. and Wake, M.H. (1972). ''Geographic variation and systematics of the Middle American caecilians, genera Dermophis and Gymnophis.'' Copeia, 1972(4), 680-695.
Written by Adam Summers (asummers AT uci.edu), UCI
First submitted 2001-05-23
Edited by Vance Vredenburg (2001-12-18)
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on
amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. 2016. Berkeley, California:
(Accessed: May 30, 2016).
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