AMPHIBIAWEB
Hylodes magalhaesi
São Paulo Tree Toad
family: Hylodidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Data Deficient (DD)
CITES No CITES Listing
Other International Status Data Deficient (DD)
National Status None
Regional Status Vunerable (VU)

 

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Description
Hylodes magalhaesi is a toad that belongs to the H. lateristrigatus group. SVL in males 29.2 mm and 33 mm in females. The head is wide. Diameter of the tympanum is higher than eye diameter. Snout triangular in dorsal view. Oval tongue (Bokermann 1964). Nuptial asperities absent in finger I. Double vocal sacs laterally. Labial tubercles in males. The venter is dark with white blotches. Dorso-lateral fringe from the margin of the eye to the middle of abdomen (Canedo 2008).

Tadpoles have an elliptical body in dorsal and oval in lateral view. There is a depression anteriorly to the intestines. Eyes dorsally positioned. Nares rounded. Spiracle tube sinistral, posterodorsally directed, centripetal wall present as a slight ridge. Vent tube short, dextral, fused to the ventral fin. The tail is slightly higher than body and about 60% of the total length of the tadpole. Intestine rolled transversally to the longitudinal axis of the body. Tail musculature high at the anterior third. Tadpoles have convex, slightly ridged, wide dorsal fins that are slightly higher than the body and originate just before body-tail junction and becomes progressively shorter toward the tail tip. The oral apparatus is located ventrally with, emarginated laterally and ventrally, surrounded by one row of marginal papillae, alternated, and forming a laterally and ventrally double row, with a dorsal gap. Submarginal papillae anteriorly. Labial tooth row formula (LTRF) 2(2)/3(1). Lower jaw sheath is V-shaped while the upper jaw sheath is M-shaped. Both jaws are strongly keratinized, but it is common to find tadpoles without keratinized mouth structures in their later developmental stages (Gomes et al. 2012)

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil

 

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H. magalhaesi occur in Campos do Jordão, São Paulo, and Camanducaia, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Both localities are in the Mantiqueira mountain range.

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Species of Hylodes are usually diurnal, reproducing in forest stream. It breeds in streams.

Tadpoles of H. magalhaesi inhabit first order streams in primary forests. Tadpoles occur year round at different developmental stages. Reaching metamorphosis can take more than a year with froglets are observed between January and March (Gomes et al. 2012).

The advertisement call of H. magalhaesi has a dominant frequency between 1400 and 3000 c/s. Call duration is 1 s (Bokermann 1964).

Trends and Threats
The population from Camanducaia tested positive for chytridiomycosis. The species occur in one conservation unit, the Campos do Jordão State Park in southeastern Brazil. Additionally, Lithobates catesbeianus, an introduced species, occur in the State Park and may represent a threat as competitors. Buildings and urbanization for tourism may also be a threat to this species (Toledo et al. 2006).

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Urbanization
Drainage of habitat
Habitat fragmentation
Introduced competitors
Disease

Comments
The epithet of this species was given in honor of Dr. José Carlos Reis de Magalhães, who helped Bokermann in sampling specimens and making call recordings.

References

Bokermann, W. C. A. (1964). ''Una nueva especies de Elosia de la Serra de Mantiqueira, Brasil.'' Neotropica, 10, 102–107.

Canedo, C. (2008). ''Revisão taxonômica de Hylodes Fitzinger, 1826 (Amphibia, Hylodidae).''

Gomes, F.B.R.; Provete, D.B.; and Martins, I.A (2012). ''The tadpole of Hylodes magalhaesi (Bokermann, 1964) from southeastern Brazil (Anura: Hylodidae).'' Journal of Herpetology , 46(4), 614-619.

Toledo, L. F., Haddad, C. F. B., Carnaval, A. C. O. Q., and Brito, F. B. (2006). ''A Brazilian anuran (Hylodes magalhaesi: Leptodactylidae) infected by Batrachochytridium dendrobatidis: a conservation concern.'' Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, 4, 17.



Written by Diogo B. Provete (dbprovete AT gmail.com), Department of Ecology, Universidade Federal de Goiás
First submitted 2013-02-02
Edited by Ann T. Chang (2013-02-11)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2013 Hylodes magalhaesi: São Paulo Tree Toad <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/3465> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Oct 16, 2017.



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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 16 Oct 2017.

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